Testosterone – Wikipedia
Testosterone is involved in the development of male genital organs, secondary sexual characteristics; regulates spermatogenesis and sexual behavior, and also affects nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. The biological effect of testosterone is most specifically manifested in the target tissues, where its selective accumulation occurs: in the cells of the seminiferous tubules, epididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, hypothalamus, uterus, ovarian follicles. The synthesis and secretion of testosterone are regulated by luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones of the pituitary gland.
Androgenic activity of testosterone is manifested during the period of intrauterine development of the embryo (from the 13th week). In the female body, testosterone is synthesized by the ovaries, turning into estrogens in the cells of the maturing follicle, contributes to the development of the mammary glands (its concentration increases pgcl for gyno during pregnancy). Increased secretion of the hormone by the adrenal methyldrostanolone for sale glands leads to a violation of the generative function of the ovaries, as well as virilization.
IAAF’s testosterone targets are ‘Caster profiling,’ critics say
In different clinical laboratories, testosterone levels may vary depending on the test method. In most laboratories, the norm for testosterone is 11-33 nmol / L in men and 0.24-3.8 nmol / L in women .
In medical practice, testosterone preparations (for example, testosterone propionate) or its synthetic analogues are used for hypofunction of the testicles and related disorders – sexual underdevelopment, functional disorders in the genital area in adolescents, with primary eunuchoidism and hypogonadism, and in other cases.
Excess testosterone is often the cause of various skin problems (e.g. acne, seborrhea, etc.).
Testosterone is also used by athletes to gain muscle mass and strength. Long-term use of it causes a decrease in the secretion of its own testosterone. However, to eliminate this side effect, athletes conduct post-cycle therapy, on which they take various drugs to restore the production of their own hormone..
In addition, synthetic testosterone is used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for older men who have decreased levels of the male sex hormone. For this therapy, not pure testosterone is most often used, but with the addition of esters. Esters help maintain the required hormone levels over a long period of time. There are many broadcasts, including:
testosterone phenyl propionate;
and others .
Biological effects [edit | edit code]
Men [edit | edit code]
In men, higher testosterone levels are associated with periods of sexual activity. 
In men who watch sexually explicit films, testosterone levels increase by 35% on average, peaking 60–90 minutes after the end of the movie, but men who watch sexually neutral films do not.  Men who watch sexually explicit films also report increased motivation, competitiveness, and reduced fatigue.  A link was also found between relaxation after sexual arousal and testosterone levels. 
In men, the level of testosterone, a hormone known to influence male mating behavior, varies depending on whether it is exposed to the odor of an ovulating or non-ovulating woman. Men exposed to the odors of ovulating women maintained stable testosterone levels, which were higher than those of men exposed to neovulatory signals. 
Women [edit | edit code]
Androgens can modulate the physiology of the vaginal tissue and promote sexual arousal in the female genital organs.  Testosterone levels in women are higher when measured before intercourse and before hugging, and also after intercourse and after hugging. 
Sexual thoughts also alter testosterone levels, but not cortisol levels in a woman’s body, and hormonal contraceptives can alter the response of testosterone to sexual thoughts. 
Testosterone for Muscle Growth in Women
Testosterone may prove to be an effective treatment for female sexual arousal disorders , and is available as a cutaneous applicator.
The IAAF has published new rules for female athletes with high testosterone levels , .
Aggression and Crime [edit | edit code]
Most studies support the link between adult crime and testosterone. Most studies have also found that testosterone is associated with behavior or personality traits associated with crime, such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism..
Several studies indicate that the testosterone derivative estradiol (a form of estrogen) may play an important role in male aggression.    Research has also shown that testosterone promotes aggression by modulating vasopressin receptors in the hypothalamus. 
Studies have also shown that testosterone supplementation increases verbal aggression and anger in some participants. 
Testosterone correlates significantly with aggression and competitive behavior and is directly supported by the latter. There are two theories about the role of testosterone in aggression and competition.  The first hypothesis is that testosterone will increase during puberty, thereby promoting reproductive and competitive behavior that will include aggression.  Studies have shown a direct correlation between testosterone and dominance, especially among the most violent criminals in prison, who had the highest testosterone levels. The same study also found that fathers (outside the competitive environment) had the lowest testosterone levels compared to other men. 
The second theory is similar and is known as the “evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression.”   Testosterone and other androgens have evolved in order to make the brain more masculine, to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to humans and others. Thus, people with masculine brains, as a result of prenatal and adult life of testosterone and androgens, increase their ability to acquire resources in order to survive, attract and interact as much as possible with comrades.  Masculinization of the brain is mediated not only by testosterone levels during adolescence, but also by the effects of testosterone in the womb as in the fetus. Higher intrauterine testosterone is indicated by a low ratio figure and testosterone levels in adults increase the risk of fouls or aggression among male players in soccer games.  Research has also found that higher intrauterine testosterone or a lower ratio of numbers correlates with higher aggression in men.     
Subjects who interacted with hand weapons and experimental play showed testosterone increases and aggression.  Testosterone induces aggression by activating subcortical areas in the brain, which can also be suppressed by social or family norms, while at the same time manifesting itself in different situations, manifesting itself through thoughts, anger, verbal aggression, competition, dominance and physical violence.  Testosterone weakens empathy and increases the craving for violent and violent signals in men.  A specific structural characteristic of the brain, testosterone, can predict aggressive behavior in humans. 
Side effects [edit | edit code]
An overdose of hormonal drugs, in particular, testosterone derivatives, can cause hypersexuality, and safest prohormone 2016 with prolonged use, it can cause permanent severe obesity of the mammary gland (gynecomastia) or temporary slight obesity (false gynecomastia – lipomastia) in men. Gynecomastia in an advanced stage is eliminated only by surgery. Lipomastia is eliminated by normal exercise. Women may show clitoromegaly.
Does Testosterone Build a Better Athlete?
Long-term use of drugs of steroid origin can cause various diseases, in particular acne, seborrhea, striae and others. For women, secondary sexual characteristics that appear as a result of the use of testosterone-based anabolic drugs remain forever.
See also [edit | edit code]
An in-depth overview of Testosterone Cypionate
Age-related androgenic deficiency
The effect of drugs on human sexual function
List of potent substances for the purposes of Article 234 and other articles of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation 
Notes [edit | edit code]
- IAAF’s testosterone targets are ‘Caster profiling,’ critics say
- Testosterone isobutyrate
- Testosterone for Muscle Growth in Women
- Does Testosterone Build a Better Athlete?
- An in-depth overview of Testosterone Cypionate